Biofuels typology

Biofuels can be divided into two main categories:

Conventional, or 'first generation' biofuels

These biofuels can currently be produced at commercial scales. Their CO2 emission reduction is about half of the emission of fossil fuels, because the production of fuels and corresponding crops requires a lot of energy. The most important first generation biofuels are:

Advanced, or 'second generation' biofuels

These biofuels contain advanced fuel production technologies, with which low-value agricultural crops and residues can be converted into fuels. This makes their CO2 performance better than that of first generation biofuels. These fuel production technologies are not yet available on a fully commercial scale, therefore the fuels are expected to enter the market in the coming five to ten years. The key second generation biofuels are: